Architecture overview

架构概览

Angular is a platform and framework for building client applications in HTML and TypeScript. Angular is written in TypeScript. It implements core and optional functionality as a set of TypeScript libraries that you import into your apps.

Angular 是一个用 HTML 和 TypeScript 构建客户端应用的平台与框架。 Angular 本身就是用 TypeScript 写成的。它将核心功能和可选功能作为一组 TypeScript 库进行实现,你可以把它们导入你的应用中。

The basic building blocks of an Angular application are NgModules, which provide a compilation context for components. NgModules collect related code into functional sets; an Angular app is defined by a set of NgModules. An app always has at least a root module that enables bootstrapping, and typically has many more feature modules.

Angular 的基本构造块是 NgModule,它为组件提供了编译的上下文环境。 NgModule 会把相关的代码收集到一些功能集中。Angular 应用就是由一组 NgModule 定义出的。 应用至少会有一个用于引导应用的根模块,通常还会有很多特性模块

  • Components define views, which are sets of screen elements that Angular can choose among and modify according to your program logic and data.

    组件定义视图。视图是一组可见的屏幕元素,Angular 可以根据你的程序逻辑和数据来选择和修改它们。 每个应用都至少有一个根组件。

  • Components use services, which provide specific functionality not directly related to views. Service providers can be injected into components as dependencies, making your code modular, reusable, and efficient.

    组件使用服务。服务会提供那些与视图不直接相关的功能。服务提供商可以作为依赖注入到组件中, 这能让你的代码更加模块化、可复用,而且高效。

Both components and services are simply classes, with decorators that mark their type and provide metadata that tells Angular how to use them.

组件和服务都是简单的类,这些类使用装饰器来标出它们的类型,并提供元数据以告知 Angular 该如何使用它们。

  • The metadata for a component class associates it with a template that defines a view. A template combines ordinary HTML with Angular directives and binding markup that allow Angular to modify the HTML before rendering it for display.

    组件类的元数据将组件类和一个用来定义视图的模板关联起来。 模板把普通的 HTML 和指令绑定标记(markup)组合起来,这样 Angular 就可以在呈现 HTML 之前先修改这些 HTML。

  • The metadata for a service class provides the information Angular needs to make it available to components through dependency injection (DI).

    服务的元数据提供了一些信息,Angular 要用这些信息来让组件可以通过依赖注入(DI)使用该服务。

An app's components typically define many views, arranged hierarchically. Angular provides the Router service to help you define navigation paths among views. The router provides sophisticated in-browser navigational capabilities.

应用的组件通常会定义很多视图,并进行分级组织。 Angular 提供了 Router 服务来帮助你定义视图之间的导航路径。 路由器提供了先进的浏览器内导航功能。

Modules

模块

Angular NgModules differ from and complement JavaScript (ES2015) modules. An NgModule declares a compilation context for a set of components that is dedicated to an application domain, a workflow, or a closely related set of capabilities. An NgModule can associate its components with related code, such as services, to form functional units.

Angular 定义了 NgModule,它和 JavaScript(ES2015) 的模块不同而且有一定的互补性。 NgModule 为一个组件集声明了编译的上下文环境,它专注于某个应用领域、某个工作流或一组紧密相关的能力。 NgModule 可以将其组件和一组相关代码(如服务)关联起来,形成功能单元。

Every Angular app has a root module, conventionally named AppModule, which provides the bootstrap mechanism that launches the application. An app typically contains many functional modules.

每个 Angular 应用都有一个根模块,通常命名为 AppModule。根模块提供了用来启动应用的引导机制。 一个应用通常会包含很多功能模块。

Like JavaScript modules, NgModules can import functionality from other NgModules, and allow their own functionality to be exported and used by other NgModules. For example, to use the router service in your app, you import the Router NgModule.

像 JavaScript 模块一样,NgModule 也可以从其它 NgModule 中导入功能,并允许导出它们自己的功能供其它 NgModule 使用。 比如,要在你的应用中使用路由器(Router)服务,就要导入 Router 这个 NgModule。

Organizing your code into distinct functional modules helps in managing development of complex applications, and in designing for reusability. In addition, this technique lets you take advantage of lazy-loading—that is, loading modules on demand—to minimize the amount of code that needs to be loaded at startup.

把你的代码组织成一些清晰的功能模块,可以帮助管理复杂应用的开发工作并实现可复用性设计。 另外,这项技术还能让你获得惰性加载(也就是按需加载模块)的优点,以尽可能减小启动时需要加载的代码体积。

For a more detailed discussion, see Introduction to modules.

更深入的讨论,参见模块简介

Components

组件

Every Angular application has at least one component, the root component that connects a component hierarchy with the page document object model (DOM). Each component defines a class that contains application data and logic, and is associated with an HTML template that defines a view to be displayed in a target environment.

每个 Angular 应用都至少有一个组件,也就是根组件,它会把组件树和页面中的 DOM 连接起来。 每个组件都会定义一个类,其中包含应用的数据和逻辑,并与一个 HTML 模板相关联,该模板定义了一个供目标环境下显示的视图。

The @Component() decorator identifies the class immediately below it as a component, and provides the template and related component-specific metadata.

@Component() 装饰器表明紧随它的那个类是一个组件,并提供模板和该组件专属的元数据。

Decorators are functions that modify JavaScript classes. Angular defines a number of decorators that attach specific kinds of metadata to classes, so that the system knows what those classes mean and how they should work.

装饰器是一些用于修饰 JavaScript 类的函数。Angular 定义了许多装饰器,这些装饰器会把一些特定种类的元数据附加到类上,以便 Angular 了解这些这些类的含义以及该如何使用它们。

Learn more about decorators on the web.

到网上学习关于装饰器的更多知识。

Templates, directives, and data binding

模板、指令和数据绑定

A template combines HTML with Angular markup that can modify HTML elements before they are displayed. Template directives provide program logic, and binding markup connects your application data and the DOM. There are two types of data binding:

模板会把 HTML 和 Angular 的标记(markup)组合起来,这些标记可以在 HTML 元素显示出来之前修改它们。 模板中的指令会提供程序逻辑,而绑定标记会把你应用中的数据和 DOM 连接在一起。 有两种类型的数据绑定:

  • Event binding lets your app respond to user input in the target environment by updating your application data.

    事件绑定让你的应用可以通过更新应用的数据来响应目标环境下的用户输入。

  • Property binding lets you interpolate values that are computed from your application data into the HTML.

    属性绑定让你将从应用数据中计算出来的值插入到 HTML 中。

Before a view is displayed, Angular evaluates the directives and resolves the binding syntax in the template to modify the HTML elements and the DOM, according to your program data and logic. Angular supports two-way data binding, meaning that changes in the DOM, such as user choices, are also reflected in your program data.

在视图显示出来之前,Angular 会先根据你的应用数据和逻辑来运行模板中的指令并解析绑定表达式,以修改 HTML 元素和 DOM。 Angular 支持双向数据绑定,这意味着 DOM 中发生的变化(比如用户的选择)同样可以反映回你的程序数据中。

Your templates can use pipes to improve the user experience by transforming values for display. For example, use pipes to display dates and currency values that are appropriate for a user's locale. Angular provides predefined pipes for common transformations, and you can also define your own pipes.

你的模板也可以用管道转换要显示的值以增强用户体验。比如,可以使用管道来显示适合用户所在地区的日期和货币格式。 Angular 为一些通用的转换提供了预定义管道,你还可以定义自己的管道。

For a more detailed discussion of these concepts, see Introduction to components.

要了解对这些概念的深入讨论,参见组件介绍

Services and dependency injection

服务与依赖注入

For data or logic that isn't associated with a specific view, and that you want to share across components, you create a service class. A service class definition is immediately preceded by the @Injectable() decorator. The decorator provides the metadata that allows your service to be injected into client components as a dependency.

对于与特定视图无关并希望跨组件共享的数据或逻辑,可以创建服务类。 服务类的定义通常紧跟在 “@Injectable()” 装饰器之后。该装饰器提供的元数据可以让你的服务作为依赖被注入到客户组件中。

Dependency injection (DI) lets you keep your component classes lean and efficient. They don't fetch data from the server, validate user input, or log directly to the console; they delegate such tasks to services.

依赖注入(或 DI)让你可以保持组件类的精简和高效。有了 DI,组件就不用从服务器获取数据、验证用户输入或直接把日志写到控制台,而是会把这些任务委托给服务。

For a more detailed discussion, see Introduction to services and DI.

更深入的讨论,参见服务和 DI 简介

Routing

路由

The Angular Router NgModule provides a service that lets you define a navigation path among the different application states and view hierarchies in your app. It is modeled on the familiar browser navigation conventions:

Angular 的 Router 模块提供了一个服务,它可以让你定义在应用的各个不同状态和视图层次结构之间导航时要使用的路径。 它的工作模型基于人们熟知的浏览器导航约定:

  • Enter a URL in the address bar and the browser navigates to a corresponding page.

    在地址栏输入 URL,浏览器就会导航到相应的页面。

  • Click links on the page and the browser navigates to a new page.

    在页面中点击链接,浏览器就会导航到一个新页面。

  • Click the browser's back and forward buttons and the browser navigates backward and forward through the history of pages you've seen.

    点击浏览器的前进和后退按钮,浏览器就会在你的浏览历史中向前或向后导航。

The router maps URL-like paths to views instead of pages. When a user performs an action, such as clicking a link, that would load a new page in the browser, the router intercepts the browser's behavior, and shows or hides view hierarchies.

不过路由器会把类似 URL 的路径映射到视图而不是页面。 当用户执行一个动作时(比如点击链接),本应该在浏览器中加载一个新页面,但是路由器拦截了浏览器的这个行为,并显示或隐藏一个视图层次结构。

If the router determines that the current application state requires particular functionality, and the module that defines it hasn't been loaded, the router can lazy-load the module on demand.

如果路由器认为当前的应用状态需要某些特定的功能,而定义此功能的模块尚未加载,路由器就会按需惰性加载此模块。

The router interprets a link URL according to your app's view navigation rules and data state. You can navigate to new views when the user clicks a button or selects from a drop box, or in response to some other stimulus from any source. The router logs activity in the browser's history, so the back and forward buttons work as well.

路由器会根据你应用中的导航规则和数据状态来拦截 URL。 当用户点击按钮、选择下拉框或收到其它任何来源的输入时,你可以导航到一个新视图。 路由器会在浏览器的历史日志中记录这个动作,所以前进和后退按钮也能正常工作。

To define navigation rules, you associate navigation paths with your components. A path uses a URL-like syntax that integrates your program data, in much the same way that template syntax integrates your views with your program data. You can then apply program logic to choose which views to show or to hide, in response to user input and your own access rules.

要定义导航规则,你就要把导航路径和你的组件关联起来。 路径(path)使用类似 URL 的语法来和程序数据整合在一起,就像模板语法会把你的视图和程序数据整合起来一样。 然后你就可以用程序逻辑来决定要显示或隐藏哪些视图,以根据你制定的访问规则对用户的输入做出响应。

For a more detailed discussion, see Routing and navigation.

更深入的讨论,参见路由与导航


What's next

接下来呢?

You've learned the basics about the main building blocks of an Angular application. The following diagram shows how these basic pieces are related.

你已经学完了 Angular 应用的主要构造块的基础知识。 下面这张图展示了这些基础部分之间是如何关联起来的。

overview
  • Together, a component and template define an Angular view.

    组件和模板共同定义了 Angular 的视图。

    • A decorator on a component class adds the metadata, including a pointer to the associated template.

      组件类上的装饰器为其添加了元数据,其中包括指向相关模板的指针。

    • Directives and binding markup in a component's template modify views based on program data and logic.

      组件模板中的指令和绑定标记会根据程序数据和程序逻辑修改这些视图。

  • The dependency injector provides services to a component, such as the router service that lets you define navigation among views.

    依赖注入器会为组件提供一些服务,比如路由器服务就能让你定义如何在视图之间导航。

Each of these subjects is introduced in more detail in the following pages.

这些主题的详情在下列页面中有介绍:

Note that the code referenced on these pages is available as a.

注意,这些页面中的代码都在中。

When you're familiar with these fundamental building blocks, you can explore them in more detail in the documentation. To learn about more tools and techniques that are available to help you build and deploy Angular applications, see Next steps: tools and techniques.

当你熟悉了这些基础构造块之后,就可以在本文档中进一步查看它们的详情了。 要学习能帮你构建和发布应用的更多工具和技巧,参见后续步骤:工具与技巧