NgModule FAQs

Angular 模块常见问题

Prerequisites:

前提条件:

A basic understanding of the following concepts:

对下列概念有基本的理解:


NgModules help organize an application into cohesive blocks of functionality.

NgModules 可以帮你把应用组织成一些紧密相关的代码块。

This page answers the questions many developers ask about NgModule design and implementation.

这里回答的是开发者常问起的关于 Angular 模块的设计与实现问题。

What classes should I add to the declarations array?

我应该把哪些类加到 declarations 中?

Add declarable classes—components, directives, and pipes—to a declarations list.

可声明的类(组件、指令和管道)添加到 declarations 列表中。

Declare these classes in exactly one module of the application. Declare them in a module if they belong to that particular module.

这些类只能在应用程序的一个并且只有一个模块中声明。 只有当它们从属于某个模块时,才能把在模块中声明它们。


What is a declarable?

什么是可声明的

Declarables are the class types—components, directives, and pipes—that you can add to a module's declarations list. They're the only classes that you can add to declarations.

可声明的就是组件、指令和管道这些可以被加到模块的 declarations 列表中的类。它们也是所有能被加到 declarations 中的类。


What classes should I not add to declarations?

哪些类应该加到 declarations 中?

Add only declarable classes to an NgModule's declarations list.

只有可声明的类才能加到模块的 declarations 列表中。

Do not declare the following:

不要声明:

  • A class that's already declared in another module, whether an app module, @NgModule, or third-party module.

    已经在其它模块中声明过的类。无论它来自应用自己的模块(@NgModule)还是第三方模块。

  • An array of directives imported from another module. For example, don't declare FORMS_DIRECTIVES from @angular/forms because the FormsModule already declares it.

    从其它模块中导入的指令。例如,不要声明来自 @angular/forms 的 FORMS_DIRECTIVES,因为 FormsModule 已经声明过它们了。

  • Module classes.

    模块类。

  • Service classes.

    服务类

  • Non-Angular classes and objects, such as strings, numbers, functions, entity models, configurations, business logic, and helper classes.

    非 Angular 的类和对象,比如:字符串、数字、函数、实体模型、配置、业务逻辑和辅助类。


Why list the same component in multiple NgModule properties?

为什么要把同一个组件声明在不同的 NgModule 属性中?

AppComponent is often listed in both declarations and bootstrap. You might see the same component listed in declarations, exports, and entryComponents.

AppComponent 经常被同时列在 declarationsbootstrap 中。 另外你还可能看到 HeroComponent 被同时列在 declarationsexportsentryComponent 中。

While that seems redundant, these properties have different functions. Membership in one list doesn't imply membership in another list.

看起来是多余的,不过这些函数具有不同的功能,从它出现在一个列表中无法推断出它也应该在另一个列表中。

  • AppComponent could be declared in this module but not bootstrapped.

    AppComponent 可能被声明在此模块中,但可能不是引导组件。

  • AppComponent could be bootstrapped in this module but declared in a different feature module.

    AppComponent 可能在此模块中引导,但可能是由另一个特性模块声明的。

  • A component could be imported from another app module (so you can't declare it) and re-exported by this module.

    HeroComponent 可能是从另一个应用模块中导入的(所以你没法声明它)并且被当前模块重新导出。

  • A component could be exported for inclusion in an external component's template as well as dynamically loaded in a pop-up dialog.

    HeroComponent 可能被导入,以便用在外部组件的模板中,但也可能同时被一个弹出式对话框加载。


What does "Can't bind to 'x' since it isn't a known property of 'y'" mean?

"Can't bind to 'x' since it isn't a known property of 'y'"是什么意思?

This error often means that you haven't declared the directive "x" or haven't imported the NgModule to which "x" belongs.

这个错误通常意味着你或者忘了声明指令“x”,或者你没有导入“x”所属的模块。

Perhaps you declared "x" in an application sub-module but forgot to export it. The "x" class isn't visible to other modules until you add it to the exports list.

如果“x”其实不是属性,或者是组件的私有属性(比如它不带 @Input@Output 装饰器),那么你也同样会遇到这个错误。


What should I import?

我应该导入什么?

Import NgModules whose public (exported) declarable classes you need to reference in this module's component templates.

导入你需要在当前模块的组件模板中使用的那些公开的(被导出的)可声明类

This always means importing CommonModule from @angular/common for access to the Angular directives such as NgIf and NgFor. You can import it directly or from another NgModule that re-exports it.

这意味着要从 @angular/common 中导入 CommonModule 才能访问 Angular 的内置指令,比如 NgIfNgFor。 你可以直接导入它或者从重新导出过该模块的其它模块中导入它。

Import FormsModule from @angular/forms if your components have [(ngModel)] two-way binding expressions.

如果你的组件有 [(ngModel)] 双向绑定表达式,就要从 @angular/forms 中导入 FormsModule

Import shared and feature modules when this module's components incorporate their components, directives, and pipes.

如果当前模块中的组件包含了共享模块和特性模块中的组件、指令和管道,就导入这些模块。

Import only BrowserModule in the root AppModule.

只能在根模块 AppModule导入BrowserModule


Should I import BrowserModule or CommonModule?

我应该导入 BrowserModule 还是 CommonModule

The root application module, AppModule, of almost every browser application should import BrowserModule from @angular/platform-browser.

几乎所有要在浏览器中使用的应用的根模块AppModule)都应该从 @angular/platform-browser 中导入 BrowserModule

BrowserModule provides services that are essential to launch and run a browser app.

BrowserModule 提供了启动和运行浏览器应用的那些基本的服务提供商。

BrowserModule also re-exports CommonModule from @angular/common, which means that components in the AppModule module also have access to the Angular directives every app needs, such as NgIf and NgFor.

BrowserModule 还从 @angular/common 中重新导出了 CommonModule,这意味着 AppModule 中的组件也同样可以访问那些每个应用都需要的 Angular 指令,如 NgIfNgFor

Do not import BrowserModule in any other module. Feature modules and lazy-loaded modules should import CommonModule instead. They need the common directives. They don't need to re-install the app-wide providers.

在其它任何模块中都不要导入BrowserModule特性模块惰性加载模块应该改成导入 CommonModule。 它们需要通用的指令。它们不需要重新初始化全应用级的提供商。

Importing CommonModule also frees feature modules for use on any target platform, not just browsers.

特性模块中导入 CommonModule 可以让它能用在任何目标平台上,不仅是浏览器。那些跨平台库的作者应该喜欢这种方式的。


What if I import the same module twice?

如果我两次导入同一个模块会怎么样?

That's not a problem. When three modules all import Module 'A', Angular evaluates Module 'A' once, the first time it encounters it, and doesn't do so again.

没有任何问题。当三个模块全都导入模块'A'时,Angular 只会首次遇到时加载一次模块'A',之后就不会这么做了。

That's true at whatever level A appears in a hierarchy of imported NgModules. When Module 'B' imports Module 'A', Module 'C' imports 'B', and Module 'D' imports [C, B, A], then 'D' triggers the evaluation of 'C', which triggers the evaluation of 'B', which evaluates 'A'. When Angular gets to the 'B' and 'A' in 'D', they're already cached and ready to go.

无论 A 出现在所导入模块的哪个层级,都会如此。 如果模块'B'导入模块'A'、模块'C'导入模块'B',模块'D'导入 [C, B, A],那么'D'会触发模块'C'的加载,'C'会触发'B'的加载,而'B'会加载'A'。 当 Angular 在'D'中想要获取'B'和'A'时,这两个模块已经被缓存过了,可以立即使用。

Angular doesn't like NgModules with circular references, so don't let Module 'A' import Module 'B', which imports Module 'A'.

Angular 不允许模块之间出现循环依赖,所以不要让模块'A'导入模块'B',而模块'B'又导入模块'A'。


What should I export?

我应该导出什么?

Export declarable classes that components in other NgModules are able to reference in their templates. These are your public classes. If you don't export a declarable class, it stays private, visible only to other components declared in this NgModule.

导出那些其它模块希望在自己的模板中引用的可声明类。这些也是你的公共类。 如果你不导出某个类,它就是私有的,只对当前模块中声明的其它组件可见。

You can export any declarable class—components, directives, and pipes—whether it's declared in this NgModule or in an imported NgModule.

可以导出任何可声明类(组件、指令和管道),而不用管它是声明在当前模块中还是某个导入的模块中。

You can re-export entire imported NgModules, which effectively re-exports all of their exported classes. An NgModule can even export a module that it doesn't import.

可以重新导出整个导入过的模块,这将导致重新导出它们导出的所有类。重新导出的模块甚至不用先导入。


What should I not export?

不应该导出什么?

Don't export the following:

不要导出:

  • Private components, directives, and pipes that you need only within components declared in this NgModule. If you don't want another NgModule to see it, don't export it.

    那些你只想在当前模块中声明的那些组件中使用的私有组件、指令和管道。如果你不希望任何模块看到它,就不要导出。

  • Non-declarable objects such as services, functions, configurations, and entity models.

    不可声明的对象,比如服务、函数、配置、实体模型等。

  • Components that are only loaded dynamically by the router or by bootstrapping. Such entry components can never be selected in another component's template. While there's no harm in exporting them, there's also no benefit.

    那些只被路由器或引导函数动态加载的组件。 比如入口组件可能从来不会在其它组件的模板中出现。 导出它们没有坏处,但也没有好处。

  • Pure service modules that don't have public (exported) declarations. For example, there's no point in re-exporting HttpClientModule because it doesn't export anything. Its only purpose is to add http service providers to the application as a whole.

    纯服务模块没有公开(导出)的声明。 例如,没必要重新导出 HttpClientModule,因为它不导出任何东西。 它唯一的用途是一起把 http 的那些服务提供商添加到应用中。


Can I re-export classes and modules?

我可以重新导出类和模块吗?

Absolutely.

毫无疑问!

NgModules are a great way to selectively aggregate classes from other NgModules and re-export them in a consolidated, convenience module.

模块是从其它模块中选取类并把它们重新导出成统一、便利的新模块的最佳方式。

An NgModule can re-export entire NgModules, which effectively re-exports all of their exported classes. Angular's own BrowserModule exports a couple of NgModules like this:

模块可以重新导出其它模块,这会导致重新导出它们导出的所有类。 Angular 自己的 BrowserModule 就重新导出了一组模块,例如:

exports: [CommonModule, ApplicationModule]

An NgModule can export a combination of its own declarations, selected imported classes, and imported NgModules.

模块还能导出一个组合,它可以包含自己的声明、某些导入的类以及导入的模块。

Don't bother re-exporting pure service modules. Pure service modules don't export declarable classes that another NgModule could use. For example, there's no point in re-exporting HttpClientModule because it doesn't export anything. Its only purpose is to add http service providers to the application as a whole.

不要费心去导出纯服务类。 纯服务类的模块不会导出任何可供其它模块使用的可声明类。 例如,不用重新导出 HttpClientModule,因为它没有导出任何东西。 它唯一的用途是把那些 http 服务提供商一起添加到应用中。


What is the forRoot() method?

forRoot()方法是什么?

The forRoot() static method is a convention that makes it easy for developers to configure services and providers that are intended to be singletons. A good example of forRoot() is the RouterModule.forRoot() method.

静态方法 forRoot() 是一个约定,它可以让开发人员更轻松的配置模块的想要单例使用的服务及其提供商。RouterModule.forRoot() 就是一个很好的例子。

Apps pass a Routes object to RouterModule.forRoot() in order to configure the app-wide Router service with routes. RouterModule.forRoot() returns a ModuleWithProviders. You add that result to the imports list of the root AppModule.

应用把一个 Routes 对象传给 RouterModule.forRoot(),为的就是使用路由配置全应用级的 Router 服务。 RouterModule.forRoot() 返回一个ModuleWithProviders对象。 你把这个结果添加到根模块 AppModuleimports 列表中。

Only call and import a .forRoot() result in the root application module, AppModule. Importing it in any other module, particularly in a lazy-loaded module, is contrary to the intent and will likely produce a runtime error. For more information, see Singleton Services.

只能在应用的根模块 AppModule 中调用并导入 .forRoot() 的结果。 在其它模块中导入它,特别是惰性加载模块中,是违反设计目标的并会导致一个运行时错误。 要了解更多,参见单例服务

For a service, instead of using forRoot(), specify providedIn: 'root' on the service's @Injectable() decorator, which makes the service automatically available to the whole application and thus singleton by default.

对于服务来说,除了可以使用 forRoot()外,更好的方式是在该服务的 @Injectable() 装饰器中指定 providedIn: 'root',它让该服务自动在全应用级可用,这样它也就默认是单例的。

RouterModule also offers a forChild static method for configuring the routes of lazy-loaded modules.

RouterModule 也提供了静态方法 forChild,用于配置惰性加载模块的路由。

forRoot() and forChild() are conventional names for methods that configure services in root and feature modules respectively.

forRoot()forChild() 都是约定俗成的方法名,它们分别用于在根模块和特性模块中配置服务。

Angular doesn't recognize these names but Angular developers do. Follow this convention when you write similar modules with configurable service providers.

Angular 并不识别这些名字,但是 Angular 的开发人员可以。 当你写类似的需要可配置的服务提供商时,请遵循这个约定。


Why is a service provided in a feature module visible everywhere?

为什么服务提供商在特性模块中的任何地方都是可见的?

Providers listed in the @NgModule.providers of a bootstrapped module have application scope. Adding a service provider to @NgModule.providers effectively publishes the service to the entire application.

列在引导模块的 @NgModule.providers 中的服务提供商具有全应用级作用域。 往 NgModule.providers 中添加服务提供商将导致该服务被发布到整个应用中。

When you import an NgModule, Angular adds the module's service providers (the contents of its providers list) to the application root injector.

当你导入一个模块时,Angular 就会把该模块的服务提供商(也就是它的 providers 列表中的内容)加入该应用的根注入器中。

This makes the provider visible to every class in the application that knows the provider's lookup token, or name.

这会让该提供商对应用中所有知道该提供商令牌(token)的类都可见。

Extensibility through NgModule imports is a primary goal of the NgModule system. Merging NgModule providers into the application injector makes it easy for a module library to enrich the entire application with new services. By adding the HttpClientModule once, every application component can make HTTP requests.

通过模块导入来实现可扩展性是 Angular 模块系统的主要设计目标。 把模块的提供商并入应用程序的注入器可以让库模块使用新的服务来强化应用程序变得更容易。 只要添加一次 HttpClientModule,那么应用中的每个组件就都可以发起 Http 请求了。

However, this might feel like an unwelcome surprise if you expect the module's services to be visible only to the components declared by that feature module. If the HeroModule provides the HeroService and the root AppModule imports HeroModule, any class that knows the HeroService type can inject that service, not just the classes declared in the HeroModule.

不过,如果你期望模块的服务只对那个特性模块内部声明的组件可见,那么这可能会带来一些不受欢迎的意外。 如果 HeroModule 提供了一个 HeroService,并且根模块 AppModule 导入了 HeroModule,那么任何知道 HeroService类型的类都可能注入该服务,而不仅是在 HeroModule 中声明的那些类。

To limit access to a service, consider lazy loading the NgModule that provides that service. See How do I restrict service scope to a module? for more information.

要限制对某个服务的访问,可以考虑惰性加载提供该服务的 NgModule。参见我要如何把服务的范围限定为某个模块?


Why is a service provided in a lazy-loaded module visible only to that module?

为什么在惰性加载模块中声明的服务提供商只对该模块自身可见?

Unlike providers of the modules loaded at launch, providers of lazy-loaded modules are module-scoped.

和启动时就加载的模块中的提供商不同,惰性加载模块中的提供商是局限于模块的。

When the Angular router lazy-loads a module, it creates a new execution context. That context has its own injector, which is a direct child of the application injector.

当 Angular 路由器惰性加载一个模块时,它创建了一个新的运行环境。 那个环境拥有自己的注入器,它是应用注入器的直属子级。

The router adds the lazy module's providers and the providers of its imported NgModules to this child injector.

路由器把该惰性加载模块的提供商和它导入的模块的提供商添加到这个子注入器中。

These providers are insulated from changes to application providers with the same lookup token. When the router creates a component within the lazy-loaded context, Angular prefers service instances created from these providers to the service instances of the application root injector.

这些提供商不会被拥有相同令牌的应用级别提供商的变化所影响。 当路由器在惰性加载环境中创建组件时,Angular 优先使用惰性加载模块中的服务实例,而不是来自应用的根注入器的。


What if two modules provide the same service?

如果两个模块提供了同一个服务会怎么样?

When two imported modules, loaded at the same time, list a provider with the same token, the second module's provider "wins". That's because both providers are added to the same injector.

当同时加载了两个导入的模块,它们都列出了使用同一个令牌的提供商时,后导入的模块会“获胜”,这是因为这两个提供商都被添加到了同一个注入器中。

When Angular looks to inject a service for that token, it creates and delivers the instance created by the second provider.

当 Angular 尝试根据令牌注入服务时,它使用第二个提供商来创建并交付服务实例。

Every class that injects this service gets the instance created by the second provider. Even classes declared within the first module get the instance created by the second provider.

每个注入了该服务的类获得的都是由第二个提供商创建的实例。 即使是声明在第一个模块中的类,它取得的实例也是来自第二个提供商的。

If NgModule A provides a service for token 'X' and imports an NgModule B that also provides a service for token 'X', then NgModule A's service definition "wins".

如果模块 A 提供了一个使用令牌'X'的服务,并且导入的模块 B 也用令牌'X'提供了一个服务,那么模块 A 中定义的服务“获胜”了。

The service provided by the root AppModule takes precedence over services provided by imported NgModules. The AppModule always wins.

由根 AppModule 提供的服务相对于所导入模块中提供的服务有优先权。换句话说:AppModule 总会获胜。


How do I restrict service scope to a module?

我应该如何把服务的范围限制到模块中?

When a module is loaded at application launch, its @NgModule.providers have application-wide scope; that is, they are available for injection throughout the application.

如果一个模块在应用程序启动时就加载,它的 @NgModule.providers 具有全应用级作用域。 它们也可用于整个应用的注入中。

Imported providers are easily replaced by providers from another imported NgModule. Such replacement might be by design. It could be unintentional and have adverse consequences.

导入的提供商很容易被由其它导入模块中的提供商替换掉。 这虽然是故意这样设计的,但是也可能引起意料之外的结果。

As a general rule, import modules with providers exactly once, preferably in the application's root module. That's also usually the best place to configure, wrap, and override them.

作为一个通用的规则,应该只导入一次带提供商的模块,最好在应用的根模块中。 那里也是配置、包装和改写这些服务的最佳位置。

Suppose a module requires a customized HttpBackend that adds a special header for all Http requests. If another module elsewhere in the application also customizes HttpBackend or merely imports the HttpClientModule, it could override this module's HttpBackend provider, losing the special header. The server will reject http requests from this module.

假设模块需要一个定制过的 HttpBackend,它为所有的 Http 请求添加一个特别的请求头。 如果应用中其它地方的另一个模块也定制了 HttpBackend 或仅仅导入了 HttpClientModule,它就会改写当前模块的 HttpBackend 提供商,丢掉了这个特别的请求头。 这样服务器就会拒绝来自该模块的请求。

To avoid this problem, import the HttpClientModule only in the AppModule, the application root module.

要消除这个问题,就只能在应用的根模块 AppModule 中导入 HttpClientModule

If you must guard against this kind of "provider corruption", don't rely on a launch-time module's providers.

如果你必须防范这种“提供商腐化”现象,那就不要依赖于“启动时加载”模块的 providers

Load the module lazily if you can. Angular gives a lazy-loaded module its own child injector. The module's providers are visible only within the component tree created with this injector.

只要可能,就让模块惰性加载。 Angular 给了惰性加载模块自己的子注入器。 该模块中的提供商只对由该注入器创建的组件树可见。

If you must load the module eagerly, when the application starts, provide the service in a component instead.

如果你必须在应用程序启动时主动加载该模块,就改成在组件中提供该服务

Continuing with the same example, suppose the components of a module truly require a private, custom HttpBackend.

继续看这个例子,假设某个模块的组件真的需要一个私有的、自定义的 HttpBackend

Create a "top component" that acts as the root for all of the module's components. Add the custom HttpBackend provider to the top component's providers list rather than the module's providers. Recall that Angular creates a child injector for each component instance and populates the injector with the component's own providers.

那就创建一个“顶级组件”来扮演该模块中所有组件的根。 把这个自定义的 HttpBackend 提供商添加到这个顶级组件的 providers 列表中,而不是该模块的 providers 中。 回忆一下,Angular 会为每个组件实例创建一个子注入器,并使用组件自己的 providers 来配置这个注入器。

When a child of this component asks for the HttpBackend service, Angular provides the local HttpBackend service, not the version provided in the application root injector. Child components make proper HTTP requests no matter what other modules do to HttpBackend.

当该组件的子组件想要一个 HttpBackend 服务时,Angular 会提供一个局部的 HttpBackend 服务,而不是应用的根注入器创建的那个。 子组件将正确发起 http 请求,而不管其它模块对 HttpBackend 做了什么。

Be sure to create module components as children of this module's top component.

确保把模块中的组件都创建成这个顶级组件的子组件。

You can embed the child components in the top component's template. Alternatively, make the top component a routing host by giving it a <router-outlet>. Define child routes and let the router load module components into that outlet.

你可以把这些子组件都嵌在顶级组件的模板中。或者,给顶级组件一个 <router-outlet>,让它作为路由的宿主。 定义子路由,并让路由器把模块中的组件加载进该路由出口(outlet)中。

Though you can limit access to a service by providing it in a lazy loaded module or providing it in a component, providing services in a component can lead to multiple instances of those services. Thus, the lazy loading is preferable.

虽然通过在惰性加载模块中或组件中提供某个服务来限制它的访问都是可行的方式,但在组件中提供服务可能导致这些服务出现多个实例。因此,应该优先使用惰性加载的方式。


Should I add application-wide providers to the root AppModule or the root AppComponent?

我应该把全应用级提供商添加到根模块 AppModule 中还是根组件 AppComponent 中?

Define application-wide providers by specifying providedIn: 'root' on its @Injectable() decorator (in the case of services) or at InjectionToken construction (in the case where tokens are provided). Providers that are created this way automatically are made available to the entire application and don't need to be listed in any module.

通过在服务的 @Injectable() 装饰器中(例如服务)指定 providedIn: 'root' 来定义全应用级提供商,或者 InjectionToken 的构造器(例如提供令牌的地方),都可以定义全应用级提供商。 通过这种方式创建的服务提供商会自动在整个应用中可用,而不用把它列在任何模块中。

If a provider cannot be configured in this way (perhaps because it has no sensible default value), then register application-wide providers in the root AppModule, not in the AppComponent.

如果某个提供商不能用这种方式配置(可能因为它没有有意义的默认值),那就在根模块 AppModule 中注册这些全应用级服务,而不是在 AppComponent 中。

Lazy-loaded modules and their components can inject AppModule services; they can't inject AppComponent services.

惰性加载模块及其组件可以注入 AppModule 中的服务,却不能注入 AppComponent 中的。

Register a service in AppComponent providers only if the service must be hidden from components outside the AppComponent tree. This is a rare use case.

只有当该服务必须对 AppComponent 组件树之外的组件不可见时,才应该把服务注册进 AppComponentproviders 中。 这是一个非常罕见的异常用法。

More generally, prefer registering providers in NgModules to registering in components.

更一般地说,优先把提供商注册进模块中,而不是组件中。

Discussion

讨论

Angular registers all startup module providers with the application root injector. The services that root injector providers create have application scope, which means they are available to the entire application.

Angular 把所有启动期模块的提供商都注册进了应用的根注入器中。 这些服务是由根注入器中的提供商创建的,并且在整个应用中都可用。 它们具有应用级作用域

Certain services, such as the Router, only work when you register them in the application root injector.

某些服务(比如 Router)只有当注册进应用的根注入器时才能正常工作。

By contrast, Angular registers AppComponent providers with the AppComponent's own injector. AppComponent services are available only to that component and its component tree. They have component scope.

相反,Angular 使用 AppComponent 自己的注入器注册了 AppComponent 的提供商。 AppComponent 服务只在该组件及其子组件树中才能使用。 它们具有组件级作用域

The AppComponent's injector is a child of the root injector, one down in the injector hierarchy. For applications that don't use the router, that's almost the entire application. But in routed applications, routing operates at the root level where AppComponent services don't exist. This means that lazy-loaded modules can't reach them.

AppComponent 的注入器是根注入器的子级,注入器层次中的下一级。 这对于没有路由器的应用来说几乎是整个应用了。 但对那些带路由的应用,路由操作位于顶层,那里不存在 AppComponent 服务。这意味着惰性加载模块不能使用它们。


Should I add other providers to a module or a component?

我应该把其它提供商注册到模块中还是组件中?

Providers should be configured using @Injectable syntax. If possible, they should be provided in the application root (providedIn: 'root'). Services that are configured this way are lazily loaded if they are only used from a lazily loaded context.

提供商应该使用 @Injectable 语法进行配置。只要可能,就应该把它们在应用的根注入器中提供(providedIn: 'root')。 如果它们只被惰性加载的上下文中使用,那么这种方式配置的服务就是惰性加载的。

If it's the consumer's decision whether a provider is available application-wide or not, then register providers in modules (@NgModule.providers) instead of registering in components (@Component.providers).

如果要由消费方来决定是否把它作为全应用级提供商,那么就要在模块中(@NgModule.providers)注册提供商,而不是组件中(@Component.providers)。

Register a provider with a component when you must limit the scope of a service instance to that component and its component tree. Apply the same reasoning to registering a provider with a directive.

当你必须把服务实例的范围限制到某个组件及其子组件树时,就把提供商注册到该组件中。 指令的提供商也同样照此处理。

For example, an editing component that needs a private copy of a caching service should register the service with the component. Then each new instance of the component gets its own cached service instance. The changes that editor makes in its service don't touch the instances elsewhere in the application.

例如,如果英雄编辑组件需要自己私有的缓存英雄服务实例,那就应该把 HeroService 注册进 HeroEditorComponent 中。 这样,每个新的 HeroEditorComponent 的实例都会得到一份自己的缓存服务实例。 编辑器的改动只会作用于它自己的服务,而不会影响到应用中其它地方的英雄实例。

Always register application-wide services with the root AppModule, not the root AppComponent.

总是在根模块 AppModule 中注册全应用级服务,而不要在根组件 AppComponent 中。


Why is it bad if a shared module provides a service to a lazy-loaded module?

为什么在共享模块中为惰性加载模块提供服务是个馊主意?

The eagerly loaded scenario

立即加载的场景

When an eagerly loaded module provides a service, for example a UserService, that service is available application-wide. If the root module provides UserService and imports another module that provides the same UserService, Angular registers one of them in the root app injector (see What if I import the same module twice?).

当立即加载的模块提供了服务时,比如 UserService,该服务是在全应用级可用的。如果根模块提供了 UserService,并导入了另一个也提供了同一个 UserService 的模块,Angular 就会把它们中的一个注册进应用的根注入器中(参见如果两次导入了同一个模块会怎样?)。

Then, when some component injects UserService, Angular finds it in the app root injector, and delivers the app-wide singleton service. No problem.

然后,当某些组件注入 UserService 时,Angular 就会发现它已经在应用的根注入器中了,并交付这个全应用级的单例服务。这样不会出现问题。

The lazy loaded scenario

惰性加载场景

Now consider a lazy loaded module that also provides a service called UserService.

现在,该考虑 HeroModule 了,它是惰性加载的!

When the router lazy loads a module, it creates a child injector and registers the UserService provider with that child injector. The child injector is not the root injector.

当路由器准备惰性加载 HeroModule 的时候,它会创建一个子注入器,并且把 UserService 的提供商注册到那个子注入器中。子注入器和根注入器是不同的。

When Angular creates a lazy component for that module and injects UserService, it finds a UserService provider in the lazy module's child injector and creates a new instance of the UserService. This is an entirely different UserService instance than the app-wide singleton version that Angular injected in one of the eagerly loaded components.

当 Angular 创建一个惰性加载的 HeroComponent 时,它必须注入一个 UserService。 这次,它会从惰性加载模块的子注入器中查找 UserService 的提供商,并用它创建一个 UserService 的新实例。 这个 UserService 实例与 Angular 在主动加载的组件中注入的那个全应用级单例对象截然不同。

This scenario causes your app to create a new instance every time, instead of using the singleton.

这个场景导致你的应用每次都创建一个新的服务实例,而不是使用单例的服务。


Why does lazy loading create a child injector?

为什么惰性加载模块会创建一个子注入器?

Angular adds @NgModule.providers to the application root injector, unless the NgModule is lazy-loaded. For a lazy-loaded NgModule, Angular creates a child injector and adds the module's providers to the child injector.

Angular 会把 @NgModule.providers 中的提供商添加到应用的根注入器中…… 除非该模块是惰性加载的,这种情况下,它会创建一子注入器,并且把该模块的提供商添加到这个子注入器中。

This means that an NgModule behaves differently depending on whether it's loaded during application start or lazy-loaded later. Neglecting that difference can lead to adverse consequences.

这意味着模块的行为将取决于它是在应用启动期间加载的还是后来惰性加载的。如果疏忽了这一点,可能导致严重后果

Why doesn't Angular add lazy-loaded providers to the app root injector as it does for eagerly loaded NgModules?

为什么 Angular 不能像主动加载模块那样把惰性加载模块的提供商也添加到应用程序的根注入器中呢?为什么会出现这种不一致?

The answer is grounded in a fundamental characteristic of the Angular dependency-injection system. An injector can add providers until it's first used. Once an injector starts creating and delivering services, its provider list is frozen; no new providers are allowed.

归根结底,这来自于 Angular 依赖注入系统的一个基本特征: 在注入器还没有被第一次使用之前,可以不断为其添加提供商。 一旦注入器已经创建和开始交付服务,它的提供商列表就被冻结了,不再接受新的提供商。

When an applications starts, Angular first configures the root injector with the providers of all eagerly loaded NgModules before creating its first component and injecting any of the provided services. Once the application begins, the app root injector is closed to new providers.

当应用启动时,Angular 会首先使用所有主动加载模块中的提供商来配置根注入器,这发生在它创建第一个组件以及注入任何服务之前。 一旦应用开始工作,应用的根注入器就不再接受新的提供商了。

Time passes and application logic triggers lazy loading of an NgModule. Angular must add the lazy-loaded module's providers to an injector somewhere. It can't add them to the app root injector because that injector is closed to new providers. So Angular creates a new child injector for the lazy-loaded module context.

之后,应用逻辑开始惰性加载某个模块。 Angular 必须把这个惰性加载模块中的提供商添加到某个注入器中。 但是它无法将它们添加到应用的根注入器中,因为根注入器已经不再接受新的提供商了。 于是,Angular 在惰性加载模块的上下文中创建了一个新的子注入器。


How can I tell if an NgModule or service was previously loaded?

我要如何知道一个模块或服务是否已经加载过了?

Some NgModules and their services should be loaded only once by the root AppModule. Importing the module a second time by lazy loading a module could produce errant behavior that may be difficult to detect and diagnose.

某些模块及其服务只能被根模块 AppModule 加载一次。 在惰性加载模块中再次导入这个模块会导致错误的行为,这个错误可能非常难于检测和诊断。

To prevent this issue, write a constructor that attempts to inject the module or service from the root app injector. If the injection succeeds, the class has been loaded a second time. You can throw an error or take other remedial action.

为了防范这种风险,可以写一个构造函数,它会尝试从应用的根注入器中注入该模块或服务。如果这种注入成功了,那就说明这个类是被第二次加载的,你就可以抛出一个错误,或者采取其它挽救措施。

Certain NgModules, such as BrowserModule, implement such a guard. Here is a custom constructor for an NgModule called CoreModule.

某些 Angular 模块(例如 BrowserModule)就实现了一个像 Angular 模块那一章的 CoreModule 构造函数那样的守卫。

constructor (@Optional() @SkipSelf() parentModule: CoreModule) { if (parentModule) { throw new Error( 'CoreModule is already loaded. Import it in the AppModule only'); } }

What is an entry component?

什么是入口组件

An entry component is any component that Angular loads imperatively by type.

Angular 根据组件类型命令式加载的组件是入口组件.

A component loaded declaratively via its selector is not an entry component.

而通过组件选择器声明式加载的组件则不是入口组件。

Angular loads a component declaratively when using the component's selector to locate the element in the template. Angular then creates the HTML representation of the component and inserts it into the DOM at the selected element. These aren't entry components.

大多数应用组件都是声明式加载的。 Angular 使用该组件的选择器在模板中定位元素,然后创建表现该组件的 HTML,并把它插入 DOM 中所选元素的内部。它们不是入口组件。

The bootstrapped root AppComponent is an entry component. True, its selector matches an element tag in index.html. But index.html isn't a component template and the AppComponent selector doesn't match an element in any component template.

而用于引导的根 AppComponent 则是一个入口组件。 虽然它的选择器匹配了 index.html 中的一个元素,但是 index.html 并不是组件模板,而且 AppComponent 选择器也不会在任何组件模板中出现。

Components in route definitions are also entry components. A route definition refers to a component by its type. The router ignores a routed component's selector, if it even has one, and loads the component dynamically into a RouterOutlet.

在路由定义中用到的组件也同样是入口组件。 路由定义根据类型来引用组件。 路由器会忽略路由组件的选择器(即使它有选择器),并且把该组件动态加载到 RouterOutlet 中。

For more information, see Entry Components.

要了解更多,参见入口组件一章。


What's the difference between a bootstrap component and an entry component?

引导组件入口组件有什么不同?

A bootstrapped component is an entry component that Angular loads into the DOM during the bootstrap process (application launch). Other entry components are loaded dynamically by other means, such as with the router.

引导组件是入口组件的一种。 它是被 Angular 的引导(应用启动)过程加载到 DOM 中的入口组件。 其它入口组件则是被其它方式动态加载的,比如被路由器加载。

The @NgModule.bootstrap property tells the compiler that this is an entry component and it should generate code to bootstrap the application with this component.

@NgModule.bootstrap 属性告诉编译器这是一个入口组件,同时它应该生成一些代码来用该组件引导此应用。

There's no need to list a component in both the bootstrap and entryComponents lists, although doing so is harmless.

不需要把组件同时列在 bootstrapentryComponent 列表中 —— 虽然这样做也没坏处。

For more information, see Entry Components.

要了解更多,参见入口组件一章。


When do I add components to entryComponents?

什么时候我应该把组件加到 entryComponents 中?

Most application developers won't need to add components to the entryComponents.

大多数应用开发者都不需要把组件添加到 entryComponents 中。

Angular adds certain components to entry components automatically. Components listed in @NgModule.bootstrap are added automatically. Components referenced in router configuration are added automatically. These two mechanisms account for almost all entry components.

Angular 会自动把恰当的组件添加到入口组件中。 列在 @NgModule.bootstrap 中的组件会自动加入。 由路由配置引用到的组件会被自动加入。 用这两种机制添加的组件在入口组件中占了绝大多数。

If your app happens to bootstrap or dynamically load a component by type in some other manner, you must add it to entryComponents explicitly.

如果你的应用要用其它手段来根据类型引导或动态加载组件,那就得把它显式添加到 entryComponents 中。

Although it's harmless to add components to this list, it's best to add only the components that are truly entry components. Don't include components that are referenced in the templates of other components.

虽然把组件加到这个列表中也没什么坏处,不过最好还是只添加真正的入口组件。 不要添加那些被其它组件的模板引用过的组件。

For more information, see Entry Components.

要了解更多,参见入口组件一章。


Why does Angular need entryComponents?

为什么 Angular 需要入口组件

The reason is tree shaking. For production apps you want to load the smallest, fastest code possible. The code should contain only the classes that you actually need. It should exclude a component that's never used, whether or not that component is declared.

原因在于摇树优化。对于产品化应用,你会希望加载尽可能小而快的代码。 代码中应该仅仅包括那些实际用到的类。 它应该排除那些从未用过的组件,无论该组件是否被声明过。

In fact, many libraries declare and export components you'll never use. If you don't reference them, the tree shaker drops these components from the final code package.

事实上,大多数库中声明和导出的组件你都用不到。 如果你从未引用它们,那么摇树优化器就会从最终的代码包中把这些组件砍掉。

If the Angular compiler generated code for every declared component, it would defeat the purpose of the tree shaker.

如果Angular 编译器为每个声明的组件都生成了代码,那么摇树优化器的作用就没有了。

Instead, the compiler adopts a recursive strategy that generates code only for the components you use.

所以,编译器转而采用一种递归策略,它只为你用到的那些组件生成代码。

The compiler starts with the entry components, then it generates code for the declared components it finds in an entry component's template, then for the declared components it discovers in the templates of previously compiled components, and so on. At the end of the process, the compiler has generated code for every entry component and every component reachable from an entry component.

编译器从入口组件开始工作,为它在入口组件的模板中找到的那些组件生成代码,然后又为在这些组件中的模板中发现的组件生成代码,以此类推。 当这个过程结束时,它就已经为每个入口组件以及从入口组件可以抵达的每个组件生成了代码。

If a component isn't an entry component or wasn't found in a template, the compiler omits it.

如果该组件不是入口组件或者没有在任何模板中发现过,编译器就会忽略它。


What kinds of modules should I have and how should I use them?

有哪些类型的模块?我应该如何使用它们?

Every app is different. Developers have various levels of experience and comfort with the available choices. Some suggestions and guidelines appear to have wide appeal.

每个应用都不一样。根据不同程度的经验,开发者会做出不同的选择。下列建议和指导原则广受欢迎。

SharedModule

SharedModule is a conventional name for an NgModule with the components, directives, and pipes that you use everywhere in your app. This module should consist entirely of declarations, most of them exported.

为那些可能会在应用中到处使用的组件、指令和管道创建 SharedModule。 这种模块应该只包含 declarations,并且应该导出几乎所有 declarations 里面的声明。

The SharedModule may re-export other widget modules, such as CommonModule, FormsModule, and NgModules with the UI controls that you use most widely.

SharedModule 可以重新导出其它小部件模块,比如 CommonModuleFormsModule 和提供你广泛使用的 UI 控件的那些模块。

The SharedModule should not have providers for reasons explained previously. Nor should any of its imported or re-exported modules have providers.

SharedModule不应该带有 providers,原因在前面解释过了。 它的导入或重新导出的模块中也不应该有 providers。 如果你要违背这条指导原则,请务必想清楚你在做什么,并要有充分的理由。

Import the SharedModule in your feature modules, both those loaded when the app starts and those you lazy load later.

在任何特性模块中(无论是你在应用启动时主动加载的模块还是之后惰性加载的模块),你都可以随意导入这个 SharedModule

CoreModule

CoreModule is a conventional name for an NgModule with providers for the singleton services you load when the application starts.

为你要在应用启动时加载的那些服务创建一个带 providersCoreModule

Import CoreModule in the root AppModule only. Never import CoreModule in any other module.

只能在根模块 AppModule 中导入 CoreModule。 永远不要在除根模块 AppModule 之外的任何模块中导入 CoreModule

Consider making CoreModule a pure services module with no declarations.

考虑把 CoreModule 做成一个没有 declarations 的纯服务模块。

For more information, see Sharing NgModules and Singleton Services.

要了解更多,参见共享模块单例服务

Feature Modules

特性模块

Feature modules are modules you create around specific application business domains, user workflows, and utility collections. They support your app by containing a particular feature, such as routes, services, widgets, etc. To conceptualize what a feature module might be in your app, consider that if you would put the files related to a certain functionality, like a search, in one folder, that the contents of that folder would be a feature module that you might call your SearchModule. It would contain all of the components, routing, and templates that would make up the search functionality.

特性模块是你围绕特定的应用业务领域创建的模块,比如用户工作流、小工具集等。它们包含指定的特性,并为你的应用提供支持,比如路由、服务、窗口部件等。 要对你的应用中可能会有哪些特性模块有个概念,考虑如果你要把与特定功能(比如搜索)有关的文件放进一个目录下,该目录的内容就可能是一个名叫 SearchModule 的特性模块。 它将会包含构成搜索功能的全部组件、路由和模板。

For more information, see Feature Modules and Module Types

要了解更多,参见特性模块模块的分类

What's the difference between NgModules and JavaScript Modules?

在 NgModule 和 JavaScript 模块之间有什么不同?

In an Angular app, NgModules and JavaScript modules work together.

在 Angular 应用中,NgModule 会和 JavaScript 的模块一起工作。

In modern JavaScript, every file is a module (see the Modules page of the Exploring ES6 website). Within each file you write an export statement to make parts of the module public.

在现代 JavaScript 中,每个文件都是模块(参见模块)。 在每个文件中,你要写一个 export 语句将模块的一部分公开。

An Angular NgModule is a class with the @NgModule decorator—JavaScript modules don't have to have the @NgModule decorator. Angular's NgModule has imports and exports and they serve a similar purpose.

Angular 模块是一个带有 @NgModule 装饰器的类,而 JavaScript 模块则没有。 Angular 的 NgModule 有自己的 importsexports 来达到类似的目的。

You import other NgModules so you can use their exported classes in component templates. You export this NgModule's classes so they can be imported and used by components of other NgModules.

你可以导入其它 Angular 模块,以便在当前模块的组件模板中使用它们导出的类。 你可以导出当前 Angular 模块中的类,以便其它模块可以导入它们,并用在自己的组件模板中。

For more information, see JavaScript Modules vs. NgModules.

要了解更多,参见 JavaScript 模块 vs. NgModules 一章


How does Angular find components, directives, and pipes in a template?
What is a template reference?

Angular 如何查找模板中的组件、指令和管道?什么是 模板引用

The Angular compiler looks inside component templates for other components, directives, and pipes. When it finds one, that's a template reference.

Angular 编译器在组件模板内查找其它组件、指令和管道。一旦找到了,那就是一个“模板引用”。

The Angular compiler finds a component or directive in a template when it can match the selector of that component or directive to some HTML in that template.

Angular 编译器通过在一个模板的 HTML 中匹配组件或指令的选择器(selector),来查找组件或指令。

The compiler finds a pipe if the pipe's name appears within the pipe syntax of the template HTML.

编译器通过分析模板 HTML 中的管道语法中是否出现了特定的管道名来查找对应的管道。

Angular only matches selectors and pipe names for classes that are declared by this module or exported by a module that this module imports.

Angular 只查询两种组件、指令或管道:1)那些在当前模块中声明过的,以及 2)那些被当前模块导入的模块所导出的。


What is the Angular compiler?

什么是 Angular 编译器?

The Angular compiler converts the application code you write into highly performant JavaScript code. The @NgModule metadata plays an important role in guiding the compilation process.

Angular 编译器会把你所编写的应用代码转换成高性能的 JavaScript 代码。 在编译过程中,@NgModule 的元数据扮演了很重要的角色。

The code you write isn't immediately executable. For example, components have templates that contain custom elements, attribute directives, Angular binding declarations, and some peculiar syntax that clearly isn't native HTML.

你写的代码是无法直接执行的。 比如组件。 组件有一个模板,其中包含了自定义元素、属性型指令、Angular 绑定声明和一些显然不属于原生 HTML 的古怪语法。

The Angular compiler reads the template markup, combines it with the corresponding component class code, and emits component factories.

Angular 编译器读取模板的 HTML,把它和相应的组件类代码组合在一起,并产出组件工厂

A component factory creates a pure, 100% JavaScript representation of the component that incorporates everything described in its @Component metadata: the HTML, the binding instructions, the attached styles.

组件工厂为组件创建纯粹的、100% JavaScript 的表示形式,它包含了 @Component 元数据中描述的一切:HTML、绑定指令、附属的样式等……

Because directives and pipes appear in component templates, the Angular compiler incorporates them into compiled component code too.

由于指令管道都出现在组件模板中,*Angular 编译器**也同样会把它们组合到编译成的组件代码中。

@NgModule metadata tells the Angular compiler what components to compile for this module and how to link this module with other modules.

@NgModule 元数据告诉Angular 编译器要为当前模块编译哪些组件,以及如何把当前模块和其它模块链接起来。