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Npm 包

Workspace npm dependencies

Angular 框架、Angular CLI、Angular 应用程序所用到的组件都打包成 npm packages,并通过 npm registry 进行分发。

The Angular Framework, Angular CLI, and components used by Angular applications are packaged as npm packages and distributed via the npm registry.

你可以使用 npm CLI client 来下载并安装这些 npm 包,它通过 Node.js® 安装并运行。默认情况下,Angular CLI 会使用 npm 客户端。

You can download and install these npm packages by using the npm CLI client, which is installed with and runs as a Node.js® application. By default, the Angular CLI uses the npm client.

另外,你还可以使用 yarn 客户端 来下载并安装 npm 包。

Alternatively, you can use the yarn client for downloading and installing npm packages.

参见快速起步,以了解所需的 Node.js 和 npm 版本。

See Getting Started for information about the required versions and installation of Node.js and npm.

如果你的电脑上已经有了使用其它 Node.js 和 npm 版本的项目,可考虑使用 nvm 来管理 Node.js 和 npm 的多个版本。

If you already have projects running on your machine that use other versions of Node.js and npm, consider using nvm to manage the multiple versions of Node.js and npm.

package.json

无论使用 npm 还是 yarn 安装的包,都会记录在 package.json文件中。

Both npm and yarn install the packages that are identified in a package.jsonfile.

CLI 的 ng new 命令会在创建新的工作区的同时创建一个 package.json。 这个 package.json 用于此工作区中的所有项目,包括由 CLI 在创建工作区时创建的那个初始项目。

The CLI command ng new creates a package.json file when it creates the new workspace. This package.json is used by all projects in the workspace, including the initial app project that is created by the CLI when it creates the workspace.

最初,这个 package.json 包括一组初始包,其中有些是 Angular 自身需要的,另一些是用来支持一些常见的应用场景。 随着应用的演化,你可能会往 package.json 中添加甚至移除一些包。

Initially, this package.json includes a starter set of packages, some of which are required by Angular and others that support common application scenarios. You add packages to package.json as your application evolves. You may even remove some.

package.json 文件中的包被分成了两组:

The package.json is organized into two groups of packages:

代码库开发者:默认情况下,CLI 命令 ng generate library会为新的代码库项目创建一个 package.json。这个 package.json 会在把该代码库发布到 npm 时用到。 要了解更多信息,参见 CLI 的 wiki 页面代码库支持

Library developers: By default, the CLI command ng generate librarycreates a package.json for the new library. That package.json is used when publishing the library to npm. For more information, see the CLI wiki page Library Support.

Dependencies

package.json 文件的 dependencies 区列出的包都是运行应用时必备的。

The packages listed in the dependencies section of package.json are essential to running applications.

package.jsondependencies 区包括:

The dependencies section of package.json contains:

  • [Angular 包**:Angular 的核心和可选模块,它们的包名以 @angular/ 开头。

    Angular packages: Angular core and optional modules; their package names begin @angular/.

  • 支持包:那些 Angular 应用运行时必需的第三方库。

    [Support packages](#support-packages): 3rd party libraries that must be present for Angular apps to run.

  • 腻子脚本:腻子脚本负责抹平不同浏览器的 JavaScript 实现之间的差异。

    Polyfill packages: Polyfills plug gaps in a browser's JavaScript implementation.

要想添加新的依赖,请使用 ng add命令。

To add a new dependency, use the ng addcommand.

Angular 包

Angular packages

新 Angular 工作区的 package.json 文件中默认包含下列 Angular 包。 要了解 Angular 包的完整列表,参见 API 参考手册

The following Angular packages are included as dependencies in the default package.json file for a new Angular workspace. For a complete list of Angular packages, see the API reference.

Package nameDescription
@angular/animations

Angular 的动画库能让你更容易地定义和应用页面和列表的动画效果。欲知详情,参见动画

Angular's animations library makes it easy to define and apply animation effects such as page and list transitions. For more information, see the Animations guide.

@angular/common

Angular 开发组提供的常用服务、管道和指令。HttpClientModule也位于这里的 @angular/common/http子目录下。欲知详情,参见 HttpClient

The commonly-needed services, pipes, and directives provided by the Angular team. The HttpClientModuleis also here, in the @angular/common/httpsubfolder. For more information, see the HttpClient guide.

@angular/compiler

Angular的模板编译器。它能理解模板并把模板转换成代码,这些代码可以运行并渲染应用程序。通常,你不必直接与这个编译器打交道,而是当浏览器进行 JIT 编译时,通过 platform-browser-dynamic 间接使用它。欲知详情,参见 AOT (预先)编译

Angular's template compiler. It understands templates and can convert them to code that makes the application run and render. Typically you don’t interact with the compiler directly; rather, you use it indirectly via platform-browser-dynamic when JIT compiling in the browser. For more information, see the Ahead-of-time Compilation guide.

@angular/core

本框架最关键的运行时部件,每个应用都需要它们。包括全部元数据装饰器(比如 Component, Directive)、依赖注入和组件生命周期等。

Critical runtime parts of the framework that are needed by every application. Includes all metadata decorators, Component, Directive, dependency injection, and the component lifecycle hooks.

@angular/forms

用于支持模板驱动表单响应式表单。要想了解你的应用最好选择哪种方式,请参见表单简介

Support for both template-driven and reactive forms. For information about choosing the best forms approach for your app, see Introduction to forms.

@angular/http

Angular 的 HTTP 客户端遗留代码,已经在 5.0 过期,建议改用 @angular/common/http

Angular's legacy HTTP client, which was deprecated in version 5.0 in favor of @angular/common/http.

@angular/
platform‑browser

与 DOM 和浏览器有关的一切,特别是那些帮助往 DOM 中渲染的部分。这个包中还包括 bootstrapModuleFactory() 方法,该方法可以使用 AOT 编译器构建的生产环境发布包来引导应用。

Everything DOM and browser related, especially the pieces that help render into the DOM. This package also includes the bootstrapModuleFactory() method for bootstrapping applications for production builds that pre-compile with AOT.

@angular/
platform‑browser‑dynamic

包含那些用来在 JIT 编译器的客户端上编译并运行应用的提供商和方法。

Includes providers and methods to compile and run the app on the client using the JIT compiler.

@angular/router

当浏览器的 URL 变化时,路由器模块可以在应用的页面之间进行导航。欲知详情,参见路由与导航

The router module navigates among your app pages when the browser URL changes. For more information, see Routing and Navigation.

支持包

Support packages

新的 Angular 工作区的 package.json 文件中默认包含下列支持包。

The following support packages are included as dependencies in the default package.json file for a new Angular workspace.

包名

Package name

说明

Description

rxjs

很多 Angular API 都会返回可观察对象。RxJS 是对计划中的 Observable 规范的实现,它正在等待 TC39 委员会来决定是否将其纳入语言规范。

Many Angular APIs return observables. RxJS is an implementation of the proposed Observables specification currently before the TC39 committee, which determines standards for the JavaScript language.

zone.js

当原生 JavaScript 操作发生事件时,Angular 要依靠 zone.js 来运行 Angular 的变更检测过程。 Zone.js 是对一个规范的实现,它正在等待 TC39 委员会来决定是否将其纳入语言规范。

Angular relies on zone.js to run Angular's change detection processes when native JavaScript operations raise events. Zone.js is an implementation of a specification currently before the TC39 committee that determines standards for the JavaScript language.

腻子脚本包

Polyfill packages

很多浏览器欠缺对 Angular 所需的某些最新 HTML 标准、特性的原生支持。 腻子脚本 可以模拟这些缺失的特性。 浏览器支持一章中解释了哪些浏览器分别需要哪些腻子脚本,以及如何添加它们。

Many browsers lack native support for some features in the latest HTML standards, features that Angular requires. Polyfills can emulate the missing features. The Browser Support guide explains which browsers need polyfills and how you can add them.

默认的 package.json 会为新的 Angular 工作区安装 core-js 包,它会弥补很多常用浏览器缺失的特性。

The package.json for a new Angular workspace installs the core-js package, which polyfills missing features for several popular browser.

DevDependencies

package.jsondevDependencies 区列出的这些包可以帮助你在本机开发应用。 你不必把它们部署到生产环境中。

The packages listed in the devDependencies section of package.json help you develop the application on your local machine. You don't deploy them with the production application.

要想添加新的 devDependency,请使用下列命令之一:

To add a new devDependency, use either one of the following commands:

npm install --dev <package-name>
      
      npm install --dev <package-name>
    
yarn add --dev <package-name>
      
      yarn add --dev <package-name>
    

新 Angular 工作区的默认 package.json 中包含下列 devDependencies

The following devDependencies are provided in the default package.json file for a new Angular workspace.

包名

Package name

说明

Description

@angular‑devkit/
build‑angular

Angular 构建工具。

The Angular build tools.

@angular/cli

Angular CLI 工具。

The Angular CLI tools.

@angular/
compiler‑cli

Angular 编译器,Angular CLI 的 ng buildng serve 命令会调用它。

The Angular compiler, which is invoked by the Angular CLI's ng build and ng serve commands.

@angular/
language‑service

Angular 语言服务会分析组件模板并给出类型信息和错误信息,支持 TypeScript 的编辑器可以使用它来提升开发体验。具体的例子可参见 VS Code 的 Angular 语言服务扩展

The Angular language service analyzes component templates and provides type and error information that TypeScript-aware editors can use to improve the developer's experience. For example, see the Angular language service extension for VS Code.

@types/...

第三方库(如 Jasmine、Node.js)的 TypeScript 类型定义文件。

TypeScript definition files for 3rd party libraries such as Jasmine and Node.js.

codelyzer

Angular 应用的风格检查器(linter),它可以为满足 Angular 风格指南中的规则提供保障。

A linter for Angular apps whose rules conform to the Angular style guide.

jasmine/...

用于支持 Jasmine 测试库的包。

Packages to support the Jasmine test library.

karma/...

用于支持 karma 测试运行器的包。

Packages to support the karma test runner.

protractor

一个针对 Angular 应用的端到端 (e2e) 测试框架。基于 WebDriverJS 构建。

An end-to-end (e2e) framework for Angular apps. Built on top of WebDriverJS.

ts-node

供 Node.js 使用的 TypeScript 运行环境和 REPL。

TypeScript execution environment and REPL for Node.js.

tslint

一个静态分析工具,它可以检查 TypeScript 代码的可读性、可维护性和功能性方面的错误。

A static analysis tool that checks TypeScript code for readability, maintainability, and functionality errors.

typescript

TypeScript 语言的服务提供者,包括 TypeScript 编译器 tsc

The TypeScript language server, including the tsc TypeScript compiler.

要了解 Angular CLI 如何处理包的更多信息,请参见下列章节:

For information about how the Angular CLI handles packages see the following guides:

  • Building and serving 描述了这些包如何协作,以进行开发期构建。

    Building and serving describes how packages come together to create a development build.

  • Deployment 中描述了这些包如何协作,以创建一个生产环境构建。

    Deployment describes how packages come together to create a production build.