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库的原理图

Schematics for Libraries

当创建 Angular 库时,你可以为同时为它打包进一组原理图,并把它与 Angular CLI 集成在一起。借助原理图,用户可以用 ng add 来安装你这个库的初始版本,可以用 ng generate 来创建你在库中定义的一些工件,可以用 ng update 来调整他们的项目,以支持你在库的新版本中引入的破坏性变更。

When you create an Angular library, you can provide and package it with schematics that integrate it with the Angular CLI. With your schematics, your users can use ng add to install an initial version of your library, ng generate to create artifacts defined in your library, and ng update to adjust their project for a new version of your library that introduces breaking changes.

这三种原理图都可以作为你打包进库中的集合的一部分。

All three types of schematics can be part of a collection that you package with your library.

下载库的原理图项目库的原理图项目以获取一个已完成下列步骤的例子。

Download thelibrary schematics projectlibrary schematics projectfor a completed example of the steps below.

创建一个原理图集合

Creating a schematics collection

要开始一个集合,你需要创建一些原理图文件。下列步骤说明了如何在不修改任何项目文件的情况下添加初始支持。

To start a collection, you need to create the schematic files. The following steps show you how to add initial support without modifying any project files.

  1. 在库的根文件夹中,创建一个 schematics/ 文件夹。

    In your library's root folder, create a schematics/ folder.

  1. schematics/ 文件夹中,为你的第一个原理图创建一个 ng-add/ 文件夹。

    In the schematics/ folder, create an ng-add/ folder for your first schematic.

  1. schematics/ 文件夹的根级,创建一个 collection.json 文件。

    At the root level of the schematics/ folder, create a collection.json file.

  1. 编辑 collection.json 文件来定义你的集合的初始模式定义。

    Edit the collection.json file to define the initial schema for your collection.

{ "$schema": "../../../node_modules/@angular-devkit/schematics/collection-schema.json", "schematics": { "ng-add": { "description": "Add my library to the project.", "factory": "./ng-add/index#ngAdd" } } }
projects/my-lib/schematics/collection.json (Schematics Collection)
      
      {
  "$schema": "../../../node_modules/@angular-devkit/schematics/collection-schema.json",
  "schematics": {
    "ng-add": {
      "description": "Add my library to the project.",
      "factory": "./ng-add/index#ngAdd"
    }
  }
}
    
  • $schema 路径是相对于 Angular Devkit 集合模式定义的。

    The $schema path is relative to the Angular Devkit collection schema.

  • schematics 对象描述了该集合中的命名原理图。

    The schematics object describes the named schematics that are part of this collection.

  • 第一个条目是名为 ng-add 的原理图。它包含了描述,并指向执行此原理图时要调用的工厂函数。

    The first entry is for a schematic named ng-add. It contains the description, and points to the factory function that is called when your schematic is executed.

  1. 在这个库项目的 package.json 文件中,添加一个 “schematics” 的条目,里面带有你的模式定义文件的路径。当 Angular CLI 运行命令时,会根据这个条目在你的集合中查找指定名字的原理图。

    In your library project's package.json file, add a "schematics" entry with the path to your schema file. The Angular CLI uses this entry to find named schematics in your collection when it runs commands.

{ "name": "my-lib", "version": "0.0.1", "schematics": "./schematics/collection.json" }
projects/my-lib/package.json (Schematics Collection Reference)
      
      {
  "name": "my-lib",
  "version": "0.0.1",
  "schematics": "./schematics/collection.json"
}
    

你所创建的初始模式告诉 CLI 在哪里可以找到支持 ng add 命令的原理图。现在,你已准备好创建该原理图了。

The initial schema that you have created tells the CLI where to find the schematic that supports the ng add command. Now you are ready to create that schematic.

提供安装支持

Providing installation support

ng add 命令的原理图可以增强用户的初始安装过程。可以按如下步骤定义这种原理图。

A schematic for the ng add command can enhance the initial installation process for your users. The following steps will define this type of schematic.

  1. 进入/schematics/ng-add/ 目录。

    Go to the/schematics/ng-add/ folder.

  1. 创建主文件 index.ts

    Create the main file, index.ts.

  1. 打开 index.ts 并添加原理图工厂函数的源代码。

    Open index.ts and add the source code for your schematic factory function.

import { Rule, SchematicContext, Tree } from '@angular-devkit/schematics'; import { NodePackageInstallTask } from '@angular-devkit/schematics/tasks'; // Just return the tree export function ngAdd(_options: any): Rule { return (tree: Tree, _context: SchematicContext) => { _context.addTask(new NodePackageInstallTask()); return tree; }; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/ng-add/index.ts (ng-add Rule Factory)
      
      import { Rule, SchematicContext, Tree } from '@angular-devkit/schematics';
import { NodePackageInstallTask } from '@angular-devkit/schematics/tasks';

// Just return the tree
export function ngAdd(_options: any): Rule {
  return (tree: Tree, _context: SchematicContext) => {
    _context.addTask(new NodePackageInstallTask());
    return tree;
  };
}
    

提供初始 ng add 支持所需的唯一步骤是使用 SchematicContext 来触发安装任务。该任务会借助用户首选的包管理器将该库添加到宿主项目的 package.json 配置文件中,并将其安装到该项目的 node_modules 目录下。

The only step needed to provide initial ng add support is to trigger an installation task using the SchematicContext. The task uses the user's preferred package manager to add the library to the project's package.json configuration file, and install it in the project’s node_modules directory.

在这个例子中,该函数会接收当前的 Tree 并返回它而不作任何修改。如果需要,你也可以在安装软件包时进行额外的设置,例如生成文件、更新配置、或者库所需的任何其它初始设置。

In this example, the function receives the current Tree and returns it without any modifications. If you need to, you can do additional setup when your package is installed, such as generating files, updating configuration, or any other initial setup your library requires.

构建你的原理图

Building your schematics

要把你的原理图和库打包到一起,就必须把这个库配置成单独构建原理图,然后再把它们添加到发布包中。你必须先构建库再构建原理图,这样才能把它们放到正确的目录下。

To bundle your schematics together with your library, you must configure the library to build the schematics separately, then add them to the bundle. You must build your schematics after you build your library, so they are placed in the correct directory.

  • 你的库需要一个自定义的 Typescript 配置文件,里面带有如何把原理图编译进库的发布版的一些指令。

    Your library needs a custom Typescript configuration file with instructions on how to compile your schematics into your distributed library.

  • 要把这些原理图添加到库的发布包中,就要把这些脚本添加到该库的 package.json 文件中。

    To add the schematics to the library bundle, add scripts to the library's package.json file.

假设你在 Angular 工作区中有一个库项目 my-lib。要想告诉库如何构建原理图,就要在生成的 tsconfig.lib.json 库配置文件旁添加一个 tsconfig.schematics.json 文件。

Assume you have a library project my-lib in your Angular workspace. To tell the library how to build the schematics, add a tsconfig.schematics.json file next to the generated tsconfig.lib.json file that configures the library build.

  1. 编辑 tsconfig.schematics.json 文件,添加如下内容。

    Edit the tsconfig.schematics.json file to add the following content.

{ "compilerOptions": { "baseUrl": ".", "lib": [ "es2018", "dom" ], "declaration": true, "module": "commonjs", "moduleResolution": "node", "noEmitOnError": true, "noFallthroughCasesInSwitch": true, "noImplicitAny": true, "noImplicitThis": true, "noUnusedParameters": true, "noUnusedLocals": true, "rootDir": "schematics", "outDir": "../../dist/my-lib/schematics", "skipDefaultLibCheck": true, "skipLibCheck": true, "sourceMap": true, "strictNullChecks": true, "target": "es6", "types": [ "jasmine", "node" ] }, "include": [ "schematics/**/*" ], "exclude": [ "schematics/*/files/**/*" ] }
projects/my-lib/tsconfig.schematics.json (TypeScript Config)
      
      
  1. {
  2. "compilerOptions": {
  3. "baseUrl": ".",
  4. "lib": [
  5. "es2018",
  6. "dom"
  7. ],
  8. "declaration": true,
  9. "module": "commonjs",
  10. "moduleResolution": "node",
  11. "noEmitOnError": true,
  12. "noFallthroughCasesInSwitch": true,
  13. "noImplicitAny": true,
  14. "noImplicitThis": true,
  15. "noUnusedParameters": true,
  16. "noUnusedLocals": true,
  17. "rootDir": "schematics",
  18. "outDir": "../../dist/my-lib/schematics",
  19. "skipDefaultLibCheck": true,
  20. "skipLibCheck": true,
  21. "sourceMap": true,
  22. "strictNullChecks": true,
  23. "target": "es6",
  24. "types": [
  25. "jasmine",
  26. "node"
  27. ]
  28. },
  29. "include": [
  30. "schematics/**/*"
  31. ],
  32. "exclude": [
  33. "schematics/*/files/**/*"
  34. ]
  35. }
  • rootDir 指出在你的 schematics/ 文件夹中包含要编译的输入文件。

    The rootDir specifies that your schematics/ folder contains the input files to be compiled.

  • outDir 映射到了库的输出目录下。默认情况下,这是工作空间根目录下的 dist/my-lib 文件夹。

    The outDir maps to the library's output folder. By default, this is the dist/my-lib folder at the root of your workspace.

  1. 要确保你的原理图源文件会被编译进库包中,请把下列脚本添加到库项目的根文件夹(projects/my-lib)下的 package.json 文件中。

    To make sure your schematics source files get compiled into the library bundle, add the following scripts to the package.json file in your library project's root folder (projects/my-lib).

{ "name": "my-lib", "version": "0.0.1", "scripts": { "build": "../../node_modules/.bin/tsc -p tsconfig.schematics.json", "copy:schemas": "cp --parents schematics/*/schema.json ../../dist/my-lib/", "copy:files": "cp --parents -p schematics/*/files/** ../../dist/my-lib/", "copy:collection": "cp schematics/collection.json ../../dist/my-lib/schematics/collection.json", "postbuild": "npm run copy:schemas && npm run copy:files && npm run copy:collection" }, "peerDependencies": { "@angular/common": "^7.2.0", "@angular/core": "^7.2.0" }, "schematics": "./schematics/collection.json" }
projects/my-lib/package.json (Build Scripts)
      
      
  1. {
  2. "name": "my-lib",
  3. "version": "0.0.1",
  4. "scripts": {
  5. "build": "../../node_modules/.bin/tsc -p tsconfig.schematics.json",
  6. "copy:schemas": "cp --parents schematics/*/schema.json ../../dist/my-lib/",
  7. "copy:files": "cp --parents -p schematics/*/files/** ../../dist/my-lib/",
  8. "copy:collection": "cp schematics/collection.json ../../dist/my-lib/schematics/collection.json",
  9. "postbuild": "npm run copy:schemas && npm run copy:files && npm run copy:collection"
  10. },
  11. "peerDependencies": {
  12. "@angular/common": "^7.2.0",
  13. "@angular/core": "^7.2.0"
  14. },
  15. "schematics": "./schematics/collection.json"
  16. }
  • build 脚本使用自定义的 tsconfig.schematics.json 文件来编译你的原理图。

    The build script compiles your schematic using the custom tsconfig.schematics.json file.

  • copy:* 语句将已编译的原理图文件复制到库的输出目录下的正确位置,以保持目录的结构。

    The copy:* statements copy compiled schematic files into the proper locations in the library output folder in order to preserve the file structure.

  • postbuild 脚本会在 build 脚本完成后复制原理图文件。

    The postbuild script copies the schematic files after the build script completes.

提供生成器支持

Providing generation support

你可以把一个命名原理图添加到集合中,让你的用户可以使用 ng generate 命令来创建你在库中定义的工件。

You can add a named schematic to your collection that lets your users use the ng generate command to create an artifact that is defined in your library.

我们假设你的库定义了一项需要进行某些设置的服务 my-service。你希望用户能够用下面的 CLI 命令来生成它。

We'll assume that your library defines a service, my-service, that requires some setup. You want your users to be able to generate it using the following CLI command.

ng generate my-lib:my-service
      
      ng generate my-lib:my-service
    

首先,在 schematics 文件夹中新建一个子文件夹 my-service

To begin, create a new subfolder, my-service, in the schematics folder.

配置新的原理图

Configure the new schematic

当你要把一个原理图添加到集合中时,就必须在该集合的模式中指向它,并提供一些配置文件来定义用户可以传给该命令的选项。

When you add a schematic to the collection, you have to point to it in the collection's schema, and provide configuration files to define options that a user can pass to the command.

  1. 编辑一下 schematics/collection.json 文件,指向新的原理图子文件夹,并附上一个指向模式文件的指针,该文件将会指定新原理图的输入。

    Edit the schematics/collection.json file to point to the new schematic subfolder, and include a pointer to a schema file that will specify inputs for the new schematic.

{ "$schema": "../../../node_modules/@angular-devkit/schematics/collection-schema.json", "schematics": { "ng-add": { "description": "Add my library to the project.", "factory": "./ng-add/index#ngAdd" }, "my-service": { "description": "Generate a service in the project.", "factory": "./my-service/index#myService", "schema": "./my-service/schema.json" } } }
projects/my-lib/schematics/collection.json (Schematics Collection)
      
      
  1. {
  2. "$schema": "../../../node_modules/@angular-devkit/schematics/collection-schema.json",
  3. "schematics": {
  4. "ng-add": {
  5. "description": "Add my library to the project.",
  6. "factory": "./ng-add/index#ngAdd"
  7. },
  8. "my-service": {
  9. "description": "Generate a service in the project.",
  10. "factory": "./my-service/index#myService",
  11. "schema": "./my-service/schema.json"
  12. }
  13. }
  14. }
  1. 进入 <lib-root>/schematics/my-service/ 目录。

    Go to the <lib-root>/schematics/my-service/ folder.

  1. 创建一个 schema.json 文件并定义该原理图的可用选项。

    Create a schema.json file and define the available options for the schematic.

{ "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/schema", "id": "SchematicsMyService", "title": "My Service Schema", "type": "object", "properties": { "name": { "description": "The name of the service.", "type": "string" }, "path": { "type": "string", "format": "path", "description": "The path to create the service.", "visible": false }, "project": { "type": "string", "description": "The name of the project.", "$default": { "$source": "projectName" } } }, "required": [ "name" ] }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/schema.json (Schematic JSON Schema)
      
      
  1. {
  2. "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/schema",
  3. "id": "SchematicsMyService",
  4. "title": "My Service Schema",
  5. "type": "object",
  6. "properties": {
  7. "name": {
  8. "description": "The name of the service.",
  9. "type": "string"
  10. },
  11. "path": {
  12. "type": "string",
  13. "format": "path",
  14. "description": "The path to create the service.",
  15. "visible": false
  16. },
  17. "project": {
  18. "type": "string",
  19. "description": "The name of the project.",
  20. "$default": {
  21. "$source": "projectName"
  22. }
  23. }
  24. },
  25. "required": [
  26. "name"
  27. ]
  28. }
  • id:这个模式定义在集合中的唯一 id。

    id : A unique id for the schema in the collection.

  • title:一个人类可读的模式描述。

    title : A human-readable description of the schema.

  • type:由这些属性提供的类型描述符。

    type : A descriptor for the type provided by the properties.

  • 属性:一个定义该原理图可用选项的对象。

    properties : An object that defines the available options for the schematic.

每个选项都会把 key 与类型、描述和一个可选的别名关联起来。该类型定义了你所期望的值的形态,并在用户请求你的原理图给出用法帮助时显示这份描述。

Each option associates key with a type, description, and optional alias. The type defines the shape of the value you expect, and the description is displayed when the user requests usage help for your schematic.

关于原理图的更多自定义选项,请参阅工作区的模式定义。

See the workspace schema for additional customizations for schematic options.

  1. 创建一个 schema.ts 文件,并定义一个接口,用于存放 schema.ts 文件中定义的各个选项的值。

    Create a schema.ts file and define an interface that stores the values of the options defined in the schema.json file.

export interface Schema { // The name of the service. name: string; // The path to create the service. path?: string; // The name of the project. project?: string; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/schema.ts (Schematic Interface)
      
      export interface Schema {
  // The name of the service.
  name: string;

  // The path to create the service.
  path?: string;

  // The name of the project.
  project?: string;
}
    
  • name:你要为创建的这个服务指定的名称。

    name : The name you want to provide for the created service.

  • path:覆盖为原理图提供的路径。默认情况下,路径是基于当前工作目录的。

    path : Overrides the path provided to the schematic. The default path value is based on the current working directory.

  • project:提供一个具体项目来运行原理图。在原理图中,如果用户没有给出该选项,你可以提供一个默认值。

    project : Provides a specific project to run the schematic on. In the schematic, you can provide a default if the option is not provided by the user.

添加模板文件

Add template files

要把工件添加到项目中,你的原理图就需要自己的模板文件。原理图模板支持特殊的语法来执行代码和变量替换。

To add artifacts to a project, your schematic needs its own template files. Schematic templates support special syntax to execute code and variable substitution.

  1. schematics/my-service/ 目录下创建一个 files/ 文件夹。

    Create a files/ folder inside the schematics/my-service/ folder.

  1. 创建一个名叫 __name@dasherize__.service.ts.template 的文件,它定义了一个可以用来生成文件的模板。这里的模板会生成一个已把 Angular 的 HttpClient 注入到其构造函数中的服务。

    Create a file named __name@dasherize__.service.ts.template that defines a template you can use for generating files. This template will generate a service that already has Angular's HttpClient injected into its constructor.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http'; @Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' }) export class <%= classify(name) %>Service { constructor(private http: HttpClient) { } }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/files/__name@dasherize__.service.ts.template (Schematic Template)
      
      import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http';

@Injectable({
  providedIn: 'root'
})
export class <%= classify(name) %>Service {
  constructor(private http: HttpClient) { }
}
    
  • classifydasherize 方法是实用函数,你的原理图会用它们来转换你的模板源码和文件名。

    The classify and dasherize methods are utility functions that your schematic will use to transform your source template and filename.

  • name 是工厂函数提供的一个属性。它与你在模式中定义的 name 是一样的。

    The name is provided as a property from your factory function. It is the same name you defined in the schema.

添加工厂函数

Add the factory function

现在,你已经有了基础设施,可以开始定义一个 main 函数来执行要对用户项目做的各种修改了。

Now that you have the infrastructure in place, you can define the main function that performs the modifications you need in the user's project.

Schematics 框架提供了一个文件模板系统,它支持路径和内容模板。系统会操作在这个输入文件树(Tree)中加载的文件内或路径中定义的占位符,用传给 Rule 的值来填充它们。

The Schematics framework provides a file templating system, which supports both path and content templates. The system operates on placeholders defined inside files or paths that loaded in the input Tree. It fills these in using values passed into the Rule.

有关这些数据结构和语法的详细信息,请参见 Schematics 的 README

For details of these data structure and syntax, see the Schematics README.

  1. 创建主文件 index.ts 并为你的原理图工厂函数添加源代码。

    Create the main file, index.ts and add the source code for your schematic factory function.

  1. 首先,导入你需要的原理图定义。Schematics 框架提供了许多实用函数来创建规则或在执行原理图时和使用规则。

    First, import the schematics definitions you will need. The Schematics framework offers many utility functions to create and use rules when running a schematic.

import { Rule, Tree, SchematicsException, apply, url, applyTemplates, move, chain, mergeWith } from '@angular-devkit/schematics'; import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core';
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Imports)
      
      import {
  Rule, Tree, SchematicsException,
  apply, url, applyTemplates, move,
  chain, mergeWith
} from '@angular-devkit/schematics';

import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core';
    
  1. 导入已定义的模式接口,它会为你的原理图选项提供类型信息。

    Import the defined schema interface that provides the type information for your schematic's options.

import { Rule, Tree, SchematicsException, apply, url, applyTemplates, move, chain, mergeWith } from '@angular-devkit/schematics'; import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core'; import { Schema as MyServiceSchema } from './schema';
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Schema Import)
      
      import {
  Rule, Tree, SchematicsException,
  apply, url, applyTemplates, move,
  chain, mergeWith
} from '@angular-devkit/schematics';

import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core';

import { Schema as MyServiceSchema } from './schema';
    
  1. 要想构建 "生成器原理图",我们从一个空白的规则工厂开始。

    To build up the generation schematic, start with an empty rule factory.

export function myService(options: MyServiceSchema): Rule { return (tree: Tree) => { return tree; }; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Initial Rule)
      
      export function myService(options: MyServiceSchema): Rule {
  return (tree: Tree) => {
    return tree;
  };
}
    

这个简单的规则工厂返回树而不做任何修改。这些选项都是从 ng generate 命令传过来的选项值。

This simple rule factory returns the tree without modification. The options are the option values passed through from the ng generate command.

定义一个生成器规则

Define a generation rule

我们现在有了一个框架,可用来创建一些真正修改用户程序的代码,以便对库中定义的服务进行设置。

We now have the framework in place for creating the code that actually modifies the user's application to set it up for the service defined in your library.

用户安装过此库的 Angular 工作区中会包含多个项目(应用和库)。用户可以在命令行中指定一个项目,也可以使用它的默认值。在任何一种情况下,你的代码都需要知道应该在哪个项目上应用此原理图,这样才能从该项目的配置中检索信息。

The Angular workspace where the user has installed your library contains multiple projects (applications and libraries). The user can specify the project on the command line, or allow it to default. In either case, your code needs to identify the specific project to which this schematic is being applied, so that you can retrieve information from the project configuration.

你可以使用传给工厂函数的 Tree 对象来做到这一点。通过 Tree 的一些方法,你可以访问此工作空间的完整文件树,以便在运行原理图时读写文件。

You can do this using the Tree object that is passed in to the factory function. The Tree methods give you access to the complete file tree in your workspace, allowing you to read and write files during the execution of the schematic.

获取项目配置

Get the project configuration

  1. 要确定目标项目,可以使用 Tree.read() 方法在工作空间的根目录下读取工作空间配置文件 angular.json 的内容。将以下代码添加到工厂函数中。

    To determine the destination project, use the Tree.read() method to read the contents of the workspace configuration file, angular.json, at the root of the workspace. Add the following code to your factory function.

import { Rule, Tree, SchematicsException, apply, url, applyTemplates, move, chain, mergeWith } from '@angular-devkit/schematics'; import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core'; import { Schema as MyServiceSchema } from './schema'; export function myService(options: MyServiceSchema): Rule { return (tree: Tree) => { const workspaceConfig = tree.read('/angular.json'); if (!workspaceConfig) { throw new SchematicsException('Could not find Angular workspace configuration'); } // convert workspace to string const workspaceContent = workspaceConfig.toString(); // parse workspace string into JSON object const workspace: experimental.workspace.WorkspaceSchema = JSON.parse(workspaceContent); }; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Schema Import)
      
      
  1. import {
  2. Rule, Tree, SchematicsException,
  3. apply, url, applyTemplates, move,
  4. chain, mergeWith
  5. } from '@angular-devkit/schematics';
  6.  
  7. import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core';
  8.  
  9. import { Schema as MyServiceSchema } from './schema';
  10.  
  11. export function myService(options: MyServiceSchema): Rule {
  12. return (tree: Tree) => {
  13. const workspaceConfig = tree.read('/angular.json');
  14. if (!workspaceConfig) {
  15. throw new SchematicsException('Could not find Angular workspace configuration');
  16. }
  17.  
  18. // convert workspace to string
  19. const workspaceContent = workspaceConfig.toString();
  20.  
  21. // parse workspace string into JSON object
  22. const workspace: experimental.workspace.WorkspaceSchema = JSON.parse(workspaceContent);
  23. };
  24. }
  • 一定要检查此上下文是否存在,并抛出相应的错误。

    Be sure to check that the context exists and throw the appropriate error.

  • 把这些内容读入成字符串后,把配置解析成一个 JSON 对象,把它的类型设置为 WorkspaceSchema

    After reading the contents into a string, parse the configuration into a JSON object, typed to the WorkspaceSchema.

  1. WorkspaceSchema 包含工作空间配置的所有属性,包括一个 defaultProject 值,用来确定如果没有提供该参数,要使用哪个项目。如果 ng generate 命令中没有明确指定任何项目,我们就会把它作为后备值。

    The WorkspaceSchema contains all the properties of the workspace configuration, including a defaultProject value for determining which project to use if not provided. We will use that value as a fallback, if no project is explicitly specified in the ng generate command.

if (!options.project) { options.project = workspace.defaultProject; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Default Project)
      
      if (!options.project) {
  options.project = workspace.defaultProject;
}
    
  1. 现在你有了项目名称,用它来检索指定项目的配置信息。

    Now that you have the project name, use it to retrieve the project-specific configuration information.

const projectName = options.project as string; const project = workspace.projects[projectName]; const projectType = project.projectType === 'application' ? 'app' : 'lib';
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Project)
      
      const projectName = options.project as string;

const project = workspace.projects[projectName];

const projectType = project.projectType === 'application' ? 'app' : 'lib';
    

workspace projects 对象包含指定项目的全部配置信息。

The workspace projects object contains all the project-specific configuration information.

  1. options.path 决定了应用原理图之后,要把原理图模板文件移动到的位置。

    The options.path determines where the schematic template files are moved to once the schematic is applied.

原理图模式中的 path 选项默认会替换为当前工作目录。如果未定义 path,就使用项目配置中的 sourceRootprojectType 来确定。

The path option in the schematic's schema is substituted by default with the current working directory. If the path is not defined, use the sourceRoot from the project configuration along with the projectType.

if (options.path === undefined) { options.path = `${project.sourceRoot}/${projectType}`; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Project Info)
      
      if (options.path === undefined) {
  options.path = `${project.sourceRoot}/${projectType}`;
}
    

定义规则

Define the rule

Rule 可以使用外部模板文件,对它们进行转换,并使用转换后的模板返回另一个 Rule 对象。你可以使用模板来生成原理图所需的任意自定义文件。

A Rule can use external template files, transform them, and return another Rule object with the transformed template. You can use the templating to generate any custom files required for your schematic.

  1. 将以下代码添加到工厂函数中。

    Add the following code to your factory function.

const templateSource = apply(url('./files'), [ applyTemplates({ classify: strings.classify, dasherize: strings.dasherize, name: options.name }), move(normalize(options.path as string)) ]);
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Template transform)
      
      const templateSource = apply(url('./files'), [
  applyTemplates({
    classify: strings.classify,
    dasherize: strings.dasherize,
    name: options.name
  }),
  move(normalize(options.path as string))
]);
    
  • apply() 方法会把多个规则应用到源码中,并返回转换后的源代码。它需要两个参数,一个源代码和一个规则数组。

    The apply() method applies multiple rules to a source and returns the transformed source. It takes 2 arguments, a source and an array of rules.

  • url() 方法会从文件系统中相对于原理图的路径下读取源文件。

    The url() method reads source files from your filesystem, relative to the schematic.

  • applyTemplates() 方法会接收一个参数,它的方法和属性可用在原理图模板和原理图文件名上。它返回一条 Rule。你可以在这里定义 classify()dasherize() 方法,以及 name 属性。

    The applyTemplates() method receives an argument of methods and properties you want make available to the schematic template and the schematic filenames. It returns a Rule. This is where you define the classify() and dasherize() methods, and the name property.

  • classify() 方法接受一个值,并返回标题格式(title case)的值。比如,如果提供的名字是 my service,它就会返回 MyService

    The classify() method takes a value and returns the value in title case. For example, if the provided name is my service, it is returned as MyService

  • dasherize() 方法接受一个值,并以中线分隔并小写的形式返回值。比如,如果提供的名字是 MyService,它就会返回 “my-service” 的形式。

    The dasherize() method takes a value and returns the value in dashed and lowercase. For example, if the provided name is MyService, it is returned as `my-service.

  • 当应用了此原理图之后,move 方法会把所提供的源文件移动到目的地。

    The move method moves the provided source files to their destination when the schematic is applied.

  1. 最后,规则工厂必须返回一条规则。

    Finally, the rule factory must return a rule.

return chain([ mergeWith(templateSource) ]);
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts (Chain Rule)
      
      return chain([
  mergeWith(templateSource)
]);
    

chain() 方法允许你把多个规则组合到一个规则中,这样就可以在一个原理图中执行多个操作。这里你只是把模板规则和原理图要执行的代码合并在一起。

The chain() method allows you to combine multiple rules into a single rule, so that you can perform multiple operations in a single schematic. Here you are only merging the template rules with any code executed by the schematic.

请看原理图规则函数的一个完整例子。

See a complete exampled of the schematic rule function.

import { Rule, Tree, SchematicsException, apply, url, applyTemplates, move, chain, mergeWith } from '@angular-devkit/schematics'; import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core'; import { Schema as MyServiceSchema } from './schema'; export function myService(options: MyServiceSchema): Rule { return (tree: Tree) => { const workspaceConfig = tree.read('/angular.json'); if (!workspaceConfig) { throw new SchematicsException('Could not find Angular workspace configuration'); } // convert workspace to string const workspaceContent = workspaceConfig.toString(); // parse workspace string into JSON object const workspace: experimental.workspace.WorkspaceSchema = JSON.parse(workspaceContent); if (!options.project) { options.project = workspace.defaultProject; } const projectName = options.project as string; const project = workspace.projects[projectName]; const projectType = project.projectType === 'application' ? 'app' : 'lib'; if (options.path === undefined) { options.path = `${project.sourceRoot}/${projectType}`; } const templateSource = apply(url('./files'), [ applyTemplates({ classify: strings.classify, dasherize: strings.dasherize, name: options.name }), move(normalize(options.path as string)) ]); return chain([ mergeWith(templateSource) ]); }; }
projects/my-lib/schematics/my-service/index.ts
      
      
  1. import {
  2. Rule, Tree, SchematicsException,
  3. apply, url, applyTemplates, move,
  4. chain, mergeWith
  5. } from '@angular-devkit/schematics';
  6.  
  7. import { strings, normalize, experimental } from '@angular-devkit/core';
  8.  
  9. import { Schema as MyServiceSchema } from './schema';
  10.  
  11. export function myService(options: MyServiceSchema): Rule {
  12. return (tree: Tree) => {
  13. const workspaceConfig = tree.read('/angular.json');
  14. if (!workspaceConfig) {
  15. throw new SchematicsException('Could not find Angular workspace configuration');
  16. }
  17.  
  18. // convert workspace to string
  19. const workspaceContent = workspaceConfig.toString();
  20.  
  21. // parse workspace string into JSON object
  22. const workspace: experimental.workspace.WorkspaceSchema = JSON.parse(workspaceContent);
  23. if (!options.project) {
  24. options.project = workspace.defaultProject;
  25. }
  26.  
  27. const projectName = options.project as string;
  28.  
  29. const project = workspace.projects[projectName];
  30.  
  31. const projectType = project.projectType === 'application' ? 'app' : 'lib';
  32.  
  33. if (options.path === undefined) {
  34. options.path = `${project.sourceRoot}/${projectType}`;
  35. }
  36.  
  37. const templateSource = apply(url('./files'), [
  38. applyTemplates({
  39. classify: strings.classify,
  40. dasherize: strings.dasherize,
  41. name: options.name
  42. }),
  43. move(normalize(options.path as string))
  44. ]);
  45.  
  46. return chain([
  47. mergeWith(templateSource)
  48. ]);
  49. };
  50. }

有关规则和实用工具方法的详细信息,请参阅预定义规则

For more information about rules and utility methods, see Provided Rules.

运行你的库原理图

Running your library schematic

在构建库和原理图之后,你就可以安装一个原理图集合来运行你的项目了。下面的步骤介绍了如何使用上面创建的原理图来生成服务。

After you build your library and schematics, you can install the schematics collection to run against your project. The steps below show you how to generate a service using the schematic you created above.

构建你的库和原理图

Build your library and schematics

在工作区的根目录下,运行库的 ng build 命令。

From the root of your workspace, run the ng build command for your library.

ng build my-lib
      
      ng build my-lib
    

然后,进入库目录,构建原理图

Then, you change into your library directory to build the schematic

cd projects/my-lib npm run build
      
      cd projects/my-lib
npm run build
    

这些库和原理图都已打包好了,就放在你工作区根目录下的 dist/my-lib 文件夹中。要运行这个原理图,你需要把这个库链接到 node_modules 文件夹中。在工作空间的根目录下,运行 npm link 命令,并把你的可分发库的路径作为参数。

Your library and schematics are packaged and placed in the dist/my-lib folder at the root of your workspace. For running the schematic, you need to link the library into your node_modules folder. From the root of your workspace, run the npm link command with the path to your distributable library.

npm link dist/my-lib
      
      npm link dist/my-lib
    

运行原理图

Run the schematic

现在你的库已经安装完毕,可以使用 ng generate 命令来运行原理图了。

Now that your library is installed, you can run the schematic using the ng generate command.

ng generate my-lib:my-service --name my-data
      
      ng generate my-lib:my-service --name my-data
    

在控制台中,你会看到原理图已经运行过了,my-data.service.ts 文件被创建在了你的app文件夹中。

In the console, you will see that the schematic was run and the my-data.service.ts file was created in your app folder.

CREATE src/app/my-data.service.ts (208 bytes)
      
      CREATE src/app/my-data.service.ts (208 bytes)